Computer-Assisted Diagnosis for Diabetic Retinopathy Based on Fundus Images Using Deep Convolutional Neural Network

Yung Hui Li, Nai Ning Yeh, Shih Jen Chen, Yu Chien Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

95 Scopus citations


Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication of long-standing diabetes, which is hard to detect in its early stage because it only shows a few symptoms. Nowadays, the diagnosis of DR usually requires taking digital fundus images, as well as images using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Since OCT equipment is very expensive, it will benefit both the patients and the ophthalmologists if an accurate diagnosis can be made, based solely on reading digital fundus images. In the paper, we present a novel algorithm based on deep convolutional neural network (DCNN). Unlike the traditional DCNN approach, we replace the commonly used max-pooling layers with fractional max-pooling. Two of these DCNNs with a different number of layers are trained to derive more discriminative features for classification. After combining features from metadata of the image and DCNNs, we train a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to learn the underlying boundary of distributions of each class. For the experiments, we used the publicly available DR detection database provided by Kaggle. We used 34,124 training images and 1,000 validation images to build our model and tested with 53,572 testing images. The proposed DR classifier classifies the stages of DR into five categories, labeled with an integer ranging between zero and four. The experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve a recognition rate up to 86.17%, which is higher than previously reported in the literature. In addition to designing a machine learning algorithm, we also develop an app called "Deep Retina." Equipped with a handheld ophthalmoscope, the average person can take fundus images by themselves and obtain an immediate result, calculated by our algorithm. It is beneficial for home care, remote medical care, and self-examination.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6142839
JournalMobile Information Systems
StatePublished - 2019


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