Combination of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor gamma and retinoid X receptor agonists induces sodium/iodide symporter expression and inhibits cell growth of human thyroid cancer cells

Jui Yu Chen, Jane Jen Wang, Hsin Chen Lee, Chin Wen Chi, Chen Hsen Lee, Yi Chiung Hsu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Thyroid tumors are the most frequent neoplasm of the endocrine system. The major treatment is surgical intervention followed by radioiodine therapy. The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) has positive expression in thyroid carcinomas with good prognoses and plays a critical role in radioiodine therapy response. Low expression of NIS always leads to tumor recurrence or treatment failure. Redifferentiation therapy is more tumor specific than chemotherapy. Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists and retinoids are two types of redifferentiating agents. In this study, we examined whether the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone and retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist bexarotene could increase NIS expression and exhibit anticancer activity in human thyroid cancer cells. Methods: Using a TCGA data set, we analyzed the expression of NIS (SLC5A5), PPARγ, and RXR in clinical thyroid tumors and assessed their correlations with the relapse-free survival (RFS) of thyroid tumor patients. Moreover, two human thyroid cancer cell lines, differentiated thyroid papillary BCPAP cells and follicular follicular thyroid cancer-131 cells, were treated with different concentrations of the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone alone or in combination with the RXR agonist bexarotene. Cell growth was analyzed by the MTT assay. NIS protein expression was determined by Western blotting. Results: From analysis of the TCGA data set, we found that thyroid tumors have lower expression of both NIS (SLC5A5) and PPARγ than nontumor controls. Higher expression levels of NIS, PPARγ, and RXR are associated with higher RFS in patients with thyroid tumors. Moreover, rosiglitazone treatment reduced cell growth and increased NIS protein expression in thyroid cancer cells under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. In addition, bexarotene potentiated the effects of rosiglitazone on cell growth and NIS protein expression. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the combination of PPARγ and RXR agonists has potential as a chemotherapeutic strategy for thyroid cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)923-930
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the Chinese Medical Association
Volume83
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2020

Keywords

  • Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor gamma
  • Retinoid X receptor
  • Sodium/iodide symporter
  • Thyroid cancer

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