Background: Feature extraction from photoplethysmography (PPG) signals is an essential step to analyze vascular and hemodynamic information. Different morphologies of PPG waveforms from different measurement sites appear. Various phenomena of missing or ambiguous features exist, which limit subsequent signal processing. Methods: The reasons that cause missing or ambiguous features of finger and wrist PPG pulses are analyzed based on the concept of component waves from pulse decomposition. Then, a systematic approach for missing-feature imputation and ambiguous-feature resolution is proposed. Results: From the experimental results, with the imputation and ambiguity resolution technique, features from 35,036 (98.7%) of 35,502 finger PPG cycles and 36307 (99.1%) of 36,652 wrist PPG cycles can be successfully identified. The extracted features became more stable and the standard deviations of their distributions were reduced. Furthermore, significant correlations up to 0.92 were shown between the finger and wrist PPG waveforms regarding the positions and widths of the third to fifth component waves. Conclusion: The proposed missing-feature imputation and ambiguous-feature resolution solve the problems encountered during PPG feature extraction and expand the feature availability for further processing. More intrinsic properties of finger and wrist PPG are revealed. The coherence between the finger and wrist PPG waveforms enhances the applicability of the wrist PPG.
- Missing feature
- Photoplethysmography (PPG)
- Pulse decomposition analysis (PDA)