The development of minimally invasive and easy-to-use sensor devices is of current interest for ultrasensitive detection and signal recognition of Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers. Over the years, tremendous effort has been made on diagnostic platforms specifically targeting neurological markers for AD in order to replace the conventional, laborious, and invasive sampling-based approaches. However, the sophistication of analytical outcomes, marker inaccessibility, and material validity strongly limit the current strategies towards effectively predicting AD. Recently, with the promising progress in biosensor technology, the realization of a clinically applicable sensing platform has become a potential option to enable early diagnosis of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, various types of biosensors, which include electrochemical, fluorescent, plasmonic, photoelectrochemical, and field-effect transistor (FET)-based sensor configurations, with better clinical applicability and analytical performance towards AD are highlighted. Moreover, the feasibility of these sensors to achieve point-of-care (POC) diagnosis is also discussed. Furthermore, by grafting nanoscale materials into biosensor architecture, the remarkable enhancement in durability, functionality, and analytical outcome of sensor devices is presented. Finally, future perspectives on further translational and commercialization pathways of clinically driven biosensor devices for AD are discussed and summarized.