This is the first investigation on overall characteristics of 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (15 PAHs regulated by US-EPA (excluding naphthalene) and 16 PAHs recommended by the European Union) in ambient air of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Their levels, congener profiles, gas/particle partitioning, potential sources of atmospheric PAHs (gas and particulate phases), and lung cancer risks in the dry and rainy seasons were examined. The ∑25 PAH concentration in the dry and rainy seasons ranged from 8.79 to 33.2 ng m−3 and 26.0 to 60.0 ng m−3, respectively. Phenanthrene and Indeno[123-cd]pyrene were major contributors to gaseous and particulate PAHs, respectively, while benzo[c]fluorene was dominant component of the total BaP-TEQ. The ∑16 EU-PAH concentration contributed to 13 ± 2.7% of the total ∑ 25 PAH concentration; however, they composed over 99% of the total ∑ 25 PAH toxic concentration. Adsorption mainly governed the phase partitioning of PAHs because the slope of correlation between logKp and logP0L was steeper than − 1. Vehicular emission was the primary source of PAHs in two seasons; however, PAHs in the dry season were also originated from biomass burning. Assessment of lung cancer risk showed that children possibly exposed to potential lung cancer risk via inhalation.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Environmental Science and Pollution Research|
|State||Published - Jun 2022|
- Seasonal variation
- US-EPA PAHs