Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air of a tropical mega-area, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: concentration, distribution, gas/particle partitioning, potential sources and cancer risk assessment

Nguyen Duy Dat, Ngo Thi Thuan, Nhung Thi Tuyet Hoang, Hiep Ngoc Tran, To Thi Hien, Khoi Tien Tran, Moo Been Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

This is the first investigation on overall characteristics of 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (15 PAHs regulated by US-EPA (excluding naphthalene) and 16 PAHs recommended by the European Union) in ambient air of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Their levels, congener profiles, gas/particle partitioning, potential sources of atmospheric PAHs (gas and particulate phases), and lung cancer risks in the dry and rainy seasons were examined. The ∑25 PAH concentration in the dry and rainy seasons ranged from 8.79 to 33.2 ng m−3 and 26.0 to 60.0 ng m−3, respectively. Phenanthrene and Indeno[123-cd]pyrene were major contributors to gaseous and particulate PAHs, respectively, while benzo[c]fluorene was dominant component of the total BaP-TEQ. The ∑16 EU-PAH concentration contributed to 13 ± 2.7% of the total ∑ 25 PAH concentration; however, they composed over 99% of the total ∑ 25 PAH toxic concentration. Adsorption mainly governed the phase partitioning of PAHs because the slope of correlation between logKp and logP0L was steeper than − 1. Vehicular emission was the primary source of PAHs in two seasons; however, PAHs in the dry season were also originated from biomass burning. Assessment of lung cancer risk showed that children possibly exposed to potential lung cancer risk via inhalation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)44054-44066
Number of pages13
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Volume29
Issue number29
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2022

Keywords

  • Benzo[c]fluorine
  • EU-PAHs
  • Seasonal variation
  • US-EPA PAHs

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