Carboxylic acid-assisted solid-state synthesis of LiFePO4/C composites and their electrochemical properties as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

George Ting-Kuo Fey, Tung Lin Lu, Feng Yu Wu, Wen Hsien Li

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26 Scopus citations


To enhance the capability of LiFePO4 materials, we attempted to coat carbon by incorporating various organic carboxylic acids as carbon sources. The purity of LiFePO4 was confirmed by XRD analysis. Galvanostatic cycling, cyclic voltammetry, electric impedance spectroscopy, and conductivity measurements were used to evaluate the material's electrochemical performance. The best cell performance was delivered by the sample coated with 60 wt.% malonic acid. Its first-cycle discharge capacity was 149 mA h g-1 at a 0.2 C rate or 155 mA h g-1 at a 0.1 C rate. The presence of carbon in the composite was verified by total organic carbon and Raman spectral analysis. The actual carbon content of LiFePO4 was 1.90 wt.% with the addition of 60 wt.% malonic acid. The LiFePO4/C samples sintered with 60 wt.% various carboxylic acids were measured by Raman spectral analysis. The intense broad bands at 1,350 and 1,580 cm-1 are assigned to the D and G bands of residual carbon in LiFePO4/C composites, respectively. The peak intensity (I D/I G) ratio of the synthesized powders is from 0.907 to 0.935. Carbon coatings of LiFePO 4 with low I D/I G ratios can be produced by incorporating carboxylic acid additives before the final calcining process. The use of carboxylic acid as a carbon source increases the overall conductivity (10-4 S cm-1) of the material.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)825-833
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Solid State Electrochemistry
Issue number7-8
StatePublished - Aug 2008


  • Carbon
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Cathode
  • Composite


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