In traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs), packets are mainly transmitted in a multihop routing manner. The multihop transmission, however, leads to a hotspot problem in the sink connectivity area (SCA), and the overall network efficiency is reduced due to the quick battery power exhaustion of nodes in that area. This article proposes a novel balanced routing algorithm with transmission range adjustment (BRATRA) to address the network efficiency problem, including the energy efficiency and utilization issues. First, a balanced routing strategy is designed to deal with the SCA load imbalance problem. With the shortest balanced path, the amounts of forwarding packets for the nodes in the SCA and all the other intralayers become more even. From the perspective of power equilibrium in each routing path, each node then determines its accurate transmission radius according to the derived formula and performs power control to realize the even power utilization between interlayers, thereby prolonging the overall network lifetime. Performance evaluation validates that the proposed BRATRA strategy can achieve efficient power utilization in each intralayer and double the network lifetime as compared to the Dijkstra routing strategy. Additionally, it yields better power utilization fairness among nodes, and on average only 5% of battery power is unused for all network nodes, resulting in a network lifespan ten times larger than that using a conventional strategy.
- Balanced routing
- network lifecycle
- transmission range adjustment
- wireless sensor networks (WSNs)