Anopheles stephensi is a mosquito vector of malaria, which is still considered a relevant public health problem due to increasing outdoor transmission, growing resistance to insecticides used to target vectors, and antiplasmodial drugs as well. Thus, there is a vital need to explore novel sources of effective compounds. In this study, the hydrothermal method was used for the synthesis of bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI) nanoflakes. Furthermore, the toxicity of BiOI nanoflakes was evaluated for the first time on A. stephensi, as well as in vivo against the malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. The synthesis of BiOI nanoflakes was confirmed by various characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). LC50 of BiOI nanoflakes on A. stephensi were 2.263 ppm (larva I), 3.414 ppm (II), 4.956 ppm (III), 6.983 ppm (IV) and 8.605 ppm (pupae). In vivo antiplasmodial experiments conducted on P. berghei infecting albino mice showed 27.2% of chemosuppression after 4 days of treatment with 300 mg/kg/day of BiOI, a lower performance if compared to chloroquine. Overall, our results suggested that hydrothermal synthesis of BiOI nanoflakes may be considered to develop newer and safer tools for malaria vector control.
- Integrated vector management
- Plasmodium berghei