Block and random PEGylated copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) and polystyrene (PS) were synthesized with a controlled polydispersity using an atom transfer radical polymerization method and varying molar mass ratios of PS/PEGMA. Two types of PEGylated copolymers were self-assembly coated onto the surface of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) ultrafiltration membranes for enhancing biofouling resistance. It was found that the adsorption capacities of random copolymers on PVDF membranes were all higher than those of block copolymers. However, the specific and overall protein resistance of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on PVDF membranes coated with block copolymers was much higher than that with random copolymers. The increase in styrene content in copolymer increased the amount of polymer coating on the membrane, and the increase in PEGMA content enhanced the protein resistance of membranes. The optimum PS/PEGMA ratio was found to be close to 2 for the best resistance of protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion on the PEGylated diblock copolymer-coated membranes. The PVDF membrane coated with such a copolymer owned excellent biofouling resistance to BSA, humic acid, negatively surface charged bacteria E. coli, and positively surface charged bacteria S. maltophilia.