Bicyclopentadithiophene-Based Organic Semiconductor for Stable and High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells Exceeding 22%

Arulmozhi Velusamy, Shakil N. Afraj, Yu Sheng Guo, Jen Shyang Ni, Hung Lin Huang, Ting Yu Su, Yamuna Ezhumalai, Cheng Liang Liu, Chien Hung Chiang, Ming Chou Chen, Chun Guey Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Well-performing organic-inorganic halide perovskites are susceptible to poor efficiency and instability due to their various defects at the interphases, grain boundaries (GBs), and surfaces. In this study, an in situ method is utilized for effectively passivating the under-coordinated Pb2+ defects of perovskite with new non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) (INXBCDT; X = H, Cl, and Br) through their carbonyl and cyano functional groups during the antisolvent dripping process. It reveals that the bicyclopentadithiophene (BCDT) core with highly electron-withdrawing end-capping groups passivates GBs and boosts perovskite grain growth. This effective defect passivation decreases the trap density to increase the carrier recombination lifetime of the perovskite film. As a result, bromo-substituted dicyanomethylene indanone (INBr)-end-capped BCDT (INBrBCDT-b8; 3a)-passivated devices exhibit the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 22.20% (vs those of 18.09% obtained for perovskite films without passivation) upon an optimized film preparation process. Note that devices treated with more soluble 2-ethylhexyl-substituted compounds (1a, 2a, and 3a) exhibit higher PCE than those treated with less soluble octyl-substituted compounds (1b, 2b, and 3b). It is also worth noting that BCDT is a cost-effective six-ring core that is easier to synthesize with a higher yield and therefore much cheaper than those with highly fused-ring cores. In addition, a long-term stability test in a glovebox for 1500 h reveals that the perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on a perovskite absorber treated with compound 3a maintain ∼90% of their initial PCE. This is the first example of the simplest high-conjugation additive for perovskite film to achieve a PCE greater than 22% of the corresponding lead-based PSCs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6162-6175
Number of pages14
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number5
StatePublished - 7 Feb 2024


  • bicyclopentadithiophene
  • grain boundary passivation
  • high performance
  • non-fullerene acceptors
  • perovskite solar cells


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