Automated risk assessment of newly detected atrial fibrillation poststroke from electronic health record data using machine learning and natural language processing

Sheng Feng Sung, Kuan Lin Sung, Ru Chiou Pan, Pei Ju Lee, Ya Han Hu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Timely detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) after stroke is highly clinically relevant, aiding decisions on the optimal strategies for secondary prevention of stroke. In the context of limited medical resources, it is crucial to set the right priorities of extended heart rhythm monitoring by stratifying patients into different risk groups likely to have newly detected AF (NDAF). This study aimed to develop an electronic health record (EHR)-based machine learning model to assess the risk of NDAF in an early stage after stroke. Methods: Linked data between a hospital stroke registry and a deidentified research-based database including EHRs and administrative claims data was used. Demographic features, physiological measurements, routine laboratory results, and clinical free text were extracted from EHRs. The extreme gradient boosting algorithm was used to build the prediction model. The prediction performance was evaluated by the C-index and was compared to that of the AS5F and CHASE-LESS scores. Results: The study population consisted of a training set of 4,064 and a temporal test set of 1,492 patients. During a median follow-up of 10.2 months, the incidence rate of NDAF was 87.0 per 1,000 person-year in the test set. On the test set, the model based on both structured and unstructured data achieved a C-index of 0.840, which was significantly higher than those of the AS5F (0.779, p = 0.023) and CHASE-LESS (0.768, p = 0.005) scores. Conclusions: It is feasible to build a machine learning model to assess the risk of NDAF based on EHR data available at the time of hospital admission. Inclusion of information derived from clinical free text can significantly improve the model performance and may outperform risk scores developed using traditional statistical methods. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical usefulness of the prediction model.

Original languageEnglish
Article number941237
JournalFrontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Volume9
DOIs
StatePublished - 29 Jul 2022

Keywords

  • atrial fibrillation
  • electronic health records
  • ischemic stroke
  • natural language processing
  • prediction

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