Applying OGC sensor web enablement standards to develop a TDR multi-functional measurement model

Chih Chung Chung, Chih Yuan Huang, Chih Ray Guan, Ji Hao Jian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Time-domain reflectometry (TDR) is considered as a passive monitoring technique which reveals multi-functions, such as water level, bridge scour, landslide, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC), based on a single TDR device via multiplexing and related algorithms. The current platform for revealing TDR analysis and interpreted observations, however, is complex to access, thus a coherent data model and format for TDR heterogeneous data exchange is useful and necessary. To enhance the interoperability of TDR information, this research aims at standardizing the TDR data based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) standards. To be specific, this study proposes a TDR sensor description model and an observation model based on the Sensor Model Language (SensorML) and Observation and Measurement (O&M) standards. In addition, a middleware was developed to translate existing TDR information to a Sensor Observation Service (SOS) web service. Overall, by standardizing TDR data with the OGC SWE open standards, relevant information for disaster management can be effectively and efficiently integrated in an interoperable manner.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4070
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number19
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2019


  • Interoperability
  • Sensor Observation Service (SOS)
  • Time-domain reflectometry (TDR)


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