Applying FDEM, ERT and GPR at a site with soil contamination: A case study

Tzu Pin Wang, Chien Chih Chen, Lun Tao Tong, Ping Yu Chang, Yi Chieh Chen, Tien Hsing Dong, Hsin Chang Liu, Chih Ping Lin, Kai Hsing Yang, Ching Jen Ho, Shih Nan Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


This study employed the combination of three methods, namely the Frequency Domain Electromagnetic (FDEM), Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to evaluate a heavy-metal contaminated site for both pre- and post-remediation investigations. The main goals were to verify the position and the integrity of the underground storage tanks (UST), and to determine the effectiveness of remediation to ensure no contaminants remained at the site. In general, the GPR survey was effective at locating shallowly buried objects. However, due to the highly conductive nature of the heavy-metal laden sludge, the GPR signals were attenuated severely. Thus, the first attempt to use GPR in the pre-remediation investigation did not achieve the desired results and other methods were deployed. The existence of the UST and the sludge within were confirmed by ERT and the UST shape was mapped by FDEM. The principal remediation scheme was soil replacement by replacing the contaminated soil with clean silt. Based on the distinctive property differences of the contaminated soil and the clean silt, the completion of the remediation was confirmed by the differences between pre-remediation and post-remediation in GPR, ERT and FDEM results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-30
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Applied Geophysics
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2015


  • EM
  • ERT
  • GPR
  • Remediation evaluation
  • Soil pollution


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