Twenty-one fresh water samples were taken from reservoirs, wells and drinking water treatment plants in Taiwan for measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) concentrations. Due to low concentration of PCDD/Fs, water samples (400-1000L) were collected by using the on-site large volume pre-concentration system and analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC)/high resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS). Different characteristics of dioxin profiles in surface water and groundwater are observed. The PCDD/F concentrations in fresh water samples varied from 0.001 to 0.265pg WHO98-TEQ/L which are lower than the standard (12pg WHO98-TEQ/L) set by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA) for drinking water. Only a small fraction (<5%) of the total PCDD/F concentration in fresh water samples was water-soluble. As a result of their hydrophobicity, PCDD/Fs are effectively removed along with suspended solid via the water treatment process (average 98% removal efficiency).
- Water treatment