An application of the immersed boundary method for recovering the three-dimensional wind fields over complex terrain using multiple-doppler radar data

Yu chieng liou, shao fan chang, Juanzhen sun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations

Abstract

This study develops an extension of a variational-based multiple-Doppler radar synthesis method to construct the three-dimensional wind field over complex topography. The immersed boundary method (IBM) is implemented to take into account the influence imposed by a nonflat surface. The IBM has the merit of providing realistic topographic forcing without the need to change the Cartesian grid configuration into a terrain-following coordinate system. Both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions for the wind fields can be incorporated. The wind fields above the terrain are obtained by variationally adjusting the solutions to satisfy a series of weak constraints, which include the multiple-radar radial velocity observations, anelastic continuity equation, vertical vorticity equation, background wind, and spatial smoothness terms. Experiments using model-simulated data reveal that the flow structures over complex orography can be successfully retrieved using radial velocity measurements from multiple Doppler radars. The primary advantages of the original synthesis method are still maintained, that is, the winds along and near the radar baseline are well retrieved, and the resulting three-dimensional flow fields can be used directly for vorticity budget diagnosis. If compared with the traditional wind synthesis algorithm, this method is able to merge data from different sources, and utilize data from any number of radars. This provides more flexibility in designing various scanning strategies, so that the atmosphere may be probed more efficiently using a multiple-radar network. This method is also tested using the radar data collected during the Southwest Monsoon Experiment (SoWMEX), which was conducted in Taiwan fromMay to June 2008 with reasonable results being obtained.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1603-1619
Number of pages17
JournalMonthly Weather Review
Volume140
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2012

Keywords

  • Algorithms
  • Radars/Radar observations

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