A Review of AI-Driven Conversational Chatbots Implementation Methodologies and Challenges (1999–2022)

Chien Chang Lin, Anna Y.Q. Huang, Stephen J.H. Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


A conversational chatbot or dialogue system is a computer program designed to simulate conversation with human users, especially over the Internet. These chatbots can be integrated into messaging apps, mobile apps, or websites, and are designed to engage in natural language conversations with users. There are also many applications in which chatbots are used for educational support to improve students’ performance during the learning cycle. The recent success of ChatGPT also encourages researchers to explore more possibilities in the field of chatbot applications. One of the main benefits of conversational chatbots is their ability to provide an instant and automated response, which can be leveraged in many application areas. Chatbots can handle a wide range of inquiries and tasks, such as answering frequently asked questions, booking appointments, or making recommendations. Modern conversational chatbots use artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as natural language processing (NLP) and artificial neural networks, to understand and respond to users’ input. In this study, we will explore the objectives of why chatbot systems were built and what key methodologies and datasets were leveraged to build a chatbot. Finally, the achievement of the objectives will be discussed, as well as the associated challenges and future chatbot development trends.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4012
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number5
StatePublished - Mar 2023


  • chatbot
  • conversational agents
  • conversational chatbot
  • dialogue generation
  • dialogue response
  • dialogue strategies
  • dialogue system
  • machine learning


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