A proxy-based authentication and billing scheme with incentive-aware multihop forwarding for vehicular networks

Lo Yao Yeh, Yu Cheng Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


To support the high mobility of vehicles, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) defines proxy mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) to reduce the signaling overhead. However, the design of PMIPv6 does not thoroughly consider security issues, such as man-in-the-middle and impersonation attacks. Moreover, the traditional authentication/authorization/accounting (AAA) server architecture in PMIPv6 could impede the localized advantage because of the long-distance delivery between a mobile access gateway (MAG) and the AAA server. In practice, the billing is a crucial issue that is, unfortunately, rarely discussed in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). In this paper, a local-based authentication and billing scheme is proposed to lessen the long-distance communication overhead. An incentive-aware multihop forwarding procedure is also offered to stimulate the help of forwarding others' messages in a vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) environment. Therefore, the proposed billing scheme is designed for full VANETs, including the vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and V2V environments. Lightweight keyed hash functions and batch verification are employed for efficient computation and concise communication overhead. Only a few signatures are used in the first message to ensure the nonrepudiation payment approval. Security analysis and performance evaluation show that the proposed scheme is secure and efficient, compared with a conventional public-key based scheme. The advantages of the proposed scheme include: 1) mutual authentication and session key agreement; 2) privacy preservation; 3) confidentiality, integrity, free-riding resistance, double-spending avoidance, and nonrepudiation properties; and 4) efficient billing and payment clearance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6740852
Pages (from-to)1607-1621
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2014


  • Authentication
  • Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6)
  • billing
  • vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs)


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