A new method to derive fetal heart rate from maternal abdominal electrocardiogram: Monitoring fetal heart rate during cesarean section

Huei Ming Yeh, Yi Chung Chang, Chen Lin, Chien Hung Yeh, Chien Nan Lee, Ming Kwang Shyu, Ming Hui Hung, Po Ni Hsiao, Yung Hung Wang, Yu Hsin Tseng, Jenho Tsao, Ling Ping Lai, Lian Yu Lin, Men Tzung Lo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Monitoring of fetal heart rate (FHR) is important during labor since it is a sensitive marker to obtain significant information about fetal condition. To take immediate response during cesarean section (CS), we noninvasively derive FHR from maternal abdominal ECG. Methods: We recruited 17 pregnant women delivered by elective cesarean section, with abdominal ECG obtained before and during the entire CS. First, a QRS-template is created by averaging all the maternal ECG heart beats. Then, Hilbert transform was applied to QRS-template to generate the other basis which is orthogonal to the QRS-template. Second, maternal QRS, P and T waves were adaptively subtracted from the composited ECG. Third, Gabor transformation was applied to obtain time-frequency spectrogram of FHR. Heart rate variability (HRV) parameters including standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), 0V, 1V, 2V derived from symbolic dynamics of HRV and SD1, SD2 derived from Poincaré plot. Three emphasized stages includes: (1) before anesthesia, (2) 5 minutes after anesthesia and (3) 5 minutes before CS delivery. Results: FHRs were successfully derived fromall maternal abdominal ECGs. FHR increased 5 minutes after anesthesia and 5 minutes before delivery. As for HRV parameters, SDNN increased both 5 minutes after anesthesia and 5 minutes before delivery (21.30±9.05 vs. 13.01±6.89, P < 0.001 and 22.88±12.01 vs. 13.01±6.89, P < 0.05). SD1 did not change during anesthesia, while SD2 increased significantly 5 minutes after anesthesia (27.92±12.28 vs. 16.18±10.01, P < 0.001) and both SD2 and 0V percentage increased significantly 5 minutes before delivery (30.54±15.88 vs. 16.18±10.01, P < 0.05; 0.39±0.14 vs. 0.30±0.13, P < 0.05). Conclusions: We developed a novel method to automatically derive FHR from maternal abdominal ECGs and proved that it is feasible during CS.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0117509
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume10
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 13 Feb 2015

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