A multivalued bidirectional associative memory operating on a complex domain

Lee Donq-Liang, Wang Wen-June

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


A bidirectional associative memory (BAM) with complex states and connection weights is investigated in this paper. The states are represented by quantization values defined on the unit circle of the complex plane. A given Lyapunov function indicates that the proposed complex domain BAM (CDBAM) is bidirectionally stable no matter which operation (synchronous or asynchronous) is used. We also prove that all the equilibrium (fixed) points of CDBAM correspond to local energy minima so that the design problem can be solved by a gradient descent algorithm. Finally, a gradient descent algorithm in the complex domain is derived to design the weight matrix of CDBAM. Several computer simulations are performed to illustrate the validity, capacity, attractivity and the applications of the CDBAM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1623-1635
Number of pages13
JournalNeural Networks
Issue number9
StatePublished - Dec 1998


  • Bidirectional associative memory
  • Bidirectional stability
  • Complex domain
  • Gradient descend algorithm
  • Lyapunov function
  • Multivalued associative memory


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