The CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloys remain an active field over a decade owing to its excellent mechanical properties. However, the application of CoCrFeMnNi is limited because of the relatively low tensile strength. Here we proposed a micromechanical model which adopted from the theory of dislocation density to investigate the strengthening mechanisms of precipitation of chromium-rich non-equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi alloy. The microstructures of CoCrFeMnNi were obtained directly from SEM-BSE images with different annealing temperatures. The proposed framework is validated by comparing simulations with experiments of uniaxial tensile tests on the CoCrFeMnNi alloys under different annealing temperatures. The stress–strain curves indicate that the precipitate has greater influence on post-yield hardening than the initial yielding strength. In addition, we identified that the particle distribution, controlled by the average size of the particle and the volume fraction of precipitation, can significantly enhance the strengthening effect. The numerical results indicate that HEAs with a precipitate distribution closer to a normal distribution and with smaller average size will tend to have higher strength and ductility.