A comparison of heterogeneous/ homogeneous crystallization for phosphate recovery from biosolids

Nan Hung Lin, Yung Hsu Hsieh, Shun Hsing Chuang, Chun Hao Wu, Yao Hui Huang

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4 Scopus citations


In this study, a fluidized bed reactor was used to compare heterogeneous and homogeneous crystallization for recovering magnesium ammonia phosphate (MAP) from the dewatering filtrate at a municipal water resource recovery facility. Investigating the factors affecting crystallization revealed that pH exerted a greater effect than the Mg/P molar ratio. The results of a heterogeneous crystallization experiment showed that removal efficiency of phosphate (RP%) and crystal efficiency of phosphate (CP%) were 68% and 66%, respectively, at a PO4-P concentration of 200 mg/L, pH of 8.0, and Mg/P molar ratio of 1.0 for 3 h. The reaction rate of heterogeneous crystallization was markedly higher than that of homogeneous crystallization. Those pellets produced through the heterogeneous crystallization exhibited a dense surface (particle size 0.5-1.0 mm; water content 8.7%). Through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) examination, the crystallized patterns of the needle-shaped pellets were identified as MgNH4PO6H2O.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)783-789
Number of pages7
JournalWater Environment Research
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2018


  • Crystallization
  • Heterogeneous
  • Homogeneous
  • Magnesium ammonia phosphate (MAP)
  • Phosphorus


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